People's history of the Punjab: Birth of revivalist movements
Allama Muhammad Iqbal: his ideas remained embedded in a Mahatma Hans Raj led the Arya Samaj movement Maulana Zafar Ali Khan: Muslim Punjab's religious ideologue At the Round Table Conference held in London, 1930 (from left to right): Sardar Aurangzeb, A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq, Nawab Chhatari, Mian Muhammad Shafi, Sir Shah Muhammad Aga Khan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah ... The Punjabi Muslim masses looked outwards to Iran or Turkey for their salvation and got involved in Muslim revivalist movements. To some extent, this tradition recurs time and again because the Punjabi middle class is still in the process of maturing
Allama Muhammad Iqbal: his ideas remained embedded in a
Mahatma Hans Raj led the Arya Samaj movement
Maulana Zafar Ali Khan: Muslim Punjab's religious ideologue
The Punjab gave birth to many revivalist movements, principally Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj amongst Hindus, Singh Sabhas amongst Sikhs and the Khilafat movement amongst Muslims. More than pro-British Punjabi aristocrats, these reformist movements put into play the political dynamics of Lahore which had implications for the rest of the Punjab and pushed the province in the direction it ultimately went. From the Arya and Brahmo Samaj, Dayanand and Agnihotri were the most notable personages while Giani Ditt Singh was a prime mover of the Singh Sabhas and Muslim revivalist movements found their voice in Allama Mohammad Iqbal and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan.
Dr Manzur Ejaz taught at the Punjab University, Lahore, for many years and now lives in Virginia